RSNA Radiation Dose Exhibit Archive

This curated series from the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America highlights a selection of education exhibits dealing with radiation safety and patient dose. New exhibits are added monthly.

June 14, 2018 — CT Protocol Quality Control Using Semi-Automated Management Software: Why Does It Matter and Why Should I Do It? (from RSNA 2017)
There are hundreds of different protocols for each scanner. Identifying inconsistencies in CT protocols is a growing challenge. The authors present the Mayo Clinic approach to dealing with it.
Authors: E. Sheedy, A. Ferrero, L. Yu, JM Kofler, CP Favazza, JG Fletcher, S. Leng 

May 9, 2018 — Special Physics Considerations in Tomosynthesis: Artifacts and Quality Control (from RSNA 2017)
Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) is being widely adopted for breast imaging; thus, it is important for breast imagers to understand the artifacts and QC issues unique to DBT so that they will be able to optimize image quality and assess QC issues.
Authors: L. Robinson, N. Tirada, S. Dromi, G. Li, G. Khojekar 

Apr. 9, 2018 — A Radiation Protection & Diagnostic Radiology eLearning Module Developed to Improve Healthcare Professionals Knowledge (from RSNA 2017)
The authors present an eLearning module to enable practitioners to develop a baseline knowledge and understanding of important aspects of ionizing radiation safety and doses. The module includes information on patient and staff protection, patient preparation, general diagnostic examinations (PET, CT, MRI, and fluoroscopy), patient care, drugs and use of contrast agents.
Authors: A. Clayton, K. Thomas, J. Rogers 

March 13, 2018 — State-of-the-Art Dual Source CT Techniques for Decreasing Radiation Dose and Sedation Requirements in Infants and Young Children (from RSNA 2017)
The authors review the technical aspects of multi-energy CT and rapid CT, and discuss applications for which dual-energy CT can either reduce radiation dose or improve image quality, how low-kV imaging can reduce radiation dose and improve CNR, and rapid CT techniques that permit awake, free-breathing exams in pediatric patients and still reduce motion artifacts.
Authors: R. Gottumukkala, A. Tabari, M. Kalra, A. Otrakji, M. Gee 

February 21, 2018 — Physical Principles of Photon-counting CT (from RSNA 2016)
Learn about the physical principles of photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT), its advantages and challenges, including the properties of a prototype dual-source whole-body PCD which integrates both a PCD and energy-integrating detector (EID).
Authors: J. Taylor, R. Symons, S. Kappler, M. Fuld, T. Cork, M. Lakshmanan, v. Sandfort, M. Ahlman, A. Pourmorteza, D. Bluemke 

February 7, 2018 — 4,3,2,1...How Many Phases are Needed? Balancing Diagnostic Efficacy and Radiation Modulation for MDCT Imaging of Renal Cell Carcinoma? (from RSNA 2016)
Multiphase abdominal CT has a critical role in the diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma. Anatomic coverage and number of acquisitions during a 4-phase acquisition should be tailored to limit radiation exposure for each indication in an effort to balance diagnostic efficacy with radiation dose modulation.
Authors: J. Hackworth, S. Rowe, S. Kawamoto, E. Fishman, P. Johnson 

January 23, 2018 — Review of Virtual Nonenhanced Images Generated from Spectral Imaging in Abdominal CT and Clinical Application (from RSNA 2016)
The authors discuss the principle of different types of virtual nonenhanced (VNE) images derived from spectral CT and their advantages and disadvantages. See illustrations of common evaluation parameters and a comparison with true nonenhanced (TNE) images and how these VNE images perform in abdominal CT by presenting clinical images.
Authors: Y. Chai, J. Gao, P Lv, J. Xing 

September 27, 2017 — A Continuous Quality Improvement Process to Reduce Excessive CT Radiation Dose Events across a Large, Multi-institutional Academic Center (from RSNA 2016)
The authors discuss a quality improvement project at a large, multi-institutional academic center designed to reduce overall CT radiation dose by developing a process to identify excessive CT radiation exposures and continuously refine and optimize CT protocols..
Authors: M. Zygmont, R. Neill, P. Rachh, S. Dharmadhikari, P. Duong 

September 8, 2017 — Organ-based Tube-current Modulation Applied on Different MDCT Scanners: Reduction in the Radiation Dose to the Eye Lens at Head CT (from RSNA 2016)
Organ-based tube current modulation (OB-TCM) reduces the radiation dose to the lens of the eye during head CT by decreasing tube current when the x-ray tube passes over the anterior surface of the organ. CT scanners from three different manufactures with the OB-TCM feature are examined in this exhibit.
N. Kitera, C. Fujioka, K. Yokomachi, M. Kiguchi, E. Nishimaru, K. Awai 

August 14, 2017 — A Comprehensive Approach to Managing Patient Radiation Exposure in Nuclear Medicine Gamma Camera Imaging: Combining Expert-based Guidelines with Practical and Efficacious Gamma Camera Technique to Lower Radiopharmaceutical Administered Activity (from RSNA 2016)
This exhibit offers strategies for optimizing necessary nuclear radiography examinations. It offers information on the use of appropriateness criteria, society guidelines and accreditation, and optimizing techniques for choosing radiopharmaceutical dose along with gamma camera technique.
D. Eckstein, S. Shah, D. Muenzel, M. Becker 

July 13, 2017 — Emerging Concepts on Oral Contrast Media for CT (from RSNA 2016)
This exhibit reviews the current utilization of the different oral contrast media (OCM) in diverse clinical settings. The authors describe new CT technologies and their impact on OCM, discuss strategies for optimizing use of OCM when using the new technologies, and examine alternative contrast media in abdominal CT.
M. Patino, A. Parakh, D. Muenzel, D. Murcia, A. Kambadakone, D. Sahani 

June 23, 2017 — Potential Exposure Dose Reductions in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and Synthetically Reconstructed Digital Mammogram: Selection of Appropriate Reconstruction Technique (from RSNA 2016)
This exhibit reviews filtered back projection (FBP), the iterative reconstruction (IR) technique [maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) and simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT)], and synthetically reconstructed digital mammograms (SDM) to evaluate and compare the characteristics of reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images.
Authors: T. Gomi, K. Fujita, M. Goto, Y. Watanabe, T. Umeda, A. Okawa, T. Takeda 

May 5, 2017 — Radiation Safety in the Fluoroscopy Suite: History, Current Devices, Future Developments, and Controversies (from RSNA 2016)
Many radiation protection devices, such as newer lightweight aprons and slim fitted leaded glasses, may fit and look better, but may not offer the same degree of protection as some of their counterparts. As new data emerges regarding how much radiation exposure is too much, radiologists must be aware of risks to eyes, brain, and other critical structures so that they can take appropriate measures to maximize safety and mitigate risks.
Authors: D. Szaflarski, E. Coronel, F. Khan, A. Ahluwalia, D. Gregorius, J. Hoffmann 

Apr. 26, 2017 — From CTDIvol and DLP to SSDE and ICRP 103: CT Radiation Dose Measurement and Reporting Simplified (from RSNA 2016)
The exhibit’s authors present various methods of dose estimation and reporting in a simple way that is easy to grasp and relevant to the practicing radiologist.
Authors: J. Starkey, Y. Kurihara 

Apr. 14, 2017 — A Comprehensive CT Radiation Dose Reduction and Protocol Standardization Program in a Complex Tertiary Hospital System (from RSNA 2016) 
The Joint Commission requires the radiation dose of every CT exam to be recorded with investigation of cases where radiation dose exceeded established reference levels. The authors present their experience in instituting a radiation dose reduction program in a large complex health system using a novel web-based information distribution system and iterative process of lowest common denominator using phantom and clinical test cases prior to implementation. 
P. Rajiah, J. Guild, T. Browning, S. Toomay, V. Venkataraman, O.K. Oz, A. Whittemore, L. Ananthakrishnan, A. Chhabra, S Kalva, S. Abbara

Mar. 27, 2017 — Whole Body CT Protocol for Trauma: Review of Arm Positioning with Emphasis on Image Quality and Radiation Dose (from RSNA 2016) 
The authors review the influence of different arm positioning on image quality and radiation dose at whole-body CT for trauma and discuss optimal strategies to minimize beam hardening artifacts and reduce radiation dose when a patient’s arm cannot be moved up. 
A.A. Lemos, R. Brambilla, V. R. Tatko, M.C. Firetto, L. Gentile, C. Sorge, P. Biondetti