Diagnostic Reference Levels


  1. International Commission on Radiological Protection. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (Report 60). Annals of the ICRP. 1991; 21(1-3).
  2. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiological Protection and Safety in Medicine (Report 73). Annals of the ICRP. 1996;26(2):1-31.
  3. Matthews K, Brennan P.C., “The Application of Diagnostic Reference Levels: General Principles and an Irish Perspective,” Radiography, May 2009.
  4. Hart D, Wall B.F., “U.K. Population Dose From Medical X-ray Examinations,” European Journal of Radiology, June 2004.
  5. Shrimpton P.C., Wall B.F., Hart D., “Diagnostic Medical Exposures in the U.K.,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, January 1999.
  6. European Commission, “European Guidelines for Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography.” EUR 16262 EN. Luxembourg: European Commission; 2000.
  7. American College of Radiology, “ACR Practice Guideline for Diagnostic Reference Levels in Medical X-Ray Imaging,” 2002 (revised 2008).
  8. Shrimpton P., “Assessment of Patient Dose in CT” in Bongart G.Z., Golding S.J., Jurik A.G., et al., European Guidelines for Multislice Computed Tomography, 2004.
  9. Brix G., "Notice of Diagnostic Reference Values for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Studies," Federal Office for Radiation Protection, ed. Germany; 2003 (available in German only).
  10. Aroua A., Besancon A., Buchillier-Decka I., et al., "Adult Reference Levels in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology for Temporary Use in Switzerland," Radiation Protection Dosimetry, July 20, 2004.
  11. Tsai H.Y., Tung C.J., Yu C.C., Tyan Y.S., "Survey of Computed Tomography Scanners in Taiwan: Dose Descriptors, Dose Guidance Levels, and Effective Doses," Medical Physics, April 2007.
  12. Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, “Regulations and General Advice on Diagnostic Standard Doses and Reference Levels Within Medical X-ray Diagnostics,” Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, August 7, 2002.
  13. Bouwman R.W., Crompvoets-Jeukens C.R.L., Geertse T.D., et al., “Diagnostic Reference Levels in the Netherlands,” NCS Platform for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, October 2008. (in Dutch only).
  14. Bongartz G., Golding S.J., Jurik A.G., et al., ”European Guidelines for Multislice Computed Tomography,” Funded by the European Commission. Contract number FIGM-CT2000-20078-CT-TIP, March 2004.